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計畫名稱:乾洗業者使用四氯乙烯及石油系乾洗劑之環境污染研究
計畫編號:EPA-105-J103-02-D073
計畫執行單位:財團法人環境資源研究發展基金會
計畫主持人:張振平 博士
計畫期程:105 年 10 月 28 日起 106 年 7 月 27 日止


摘 要
  本計畫主要目標有三項,一、蒐集及彙整國內外針對四氯乙烯及石油系溶劑相關環境污染案例,並分析國內外乾洗業者使用四氯乙烯及石油系乾洗劑現況情形;二、蒐集及彙整國內外乾洗業者使用四氯乙烯及石油系乾洗劑流行病學研究案例;三、分析目前國際針對乾洗業者使用四氯乙烯及石油系乾洗劑管制策略等資料,研提我國未來對乾洗業者禁用四氯乙烯之初步建議作法。
  從蒐集資料及問卷調查結果得知,國內業者大多使用石油系乾洗劑為主,而國外業者雖以使用四氯乙烯為主,但隨著四氯乙烯溶劑可能有導致人體健康風險疑慮,在國外的使用也逐漸呈現下降趨勢。 流行病學案例經查詢國內文獻系統並無相關文獻,因此轉而以國內乾洗業業者使用乾洗劑的成分及暴露情況進行探討。而國外勞工之流行病學案例報告,由於乾洗業勞工於職場中實際的暴露情況為混合型溶劑暴露,但其中僅有四氯乙烯已被認定為可能導致罹患膀胱癌之溶劑。目前在有限的證據下,且現階段證據力仍不足,因此必須再進行更深入的研究才可定論。
  本計畫依據國內之相關管制策略,提出逐步禁用規劃建議,同時建議其裝置及改善防污設備,若未依期裝置或改善者,同樣不得申請使用,並撤銷原本申請使用之執照。因此採取逐步禁用方法,以減少對業者的衝擊, 並提出建議可由第三方公正單位,針對業者進行培訓課程,提升乾洗作業相關技術及知識。

There are three major objectives in this project. 1. To collect and compile Taiwan’s and international cases for the environmental pollution of tetrachlorethylene and hydrocarbonic solvent, and investigate the situation of Taiwan and international dry cleaning industry using tetrachlorethylene and hydrocarbonic solvent; 2. To collect the epidemiology study on using tetrachlorethylene and hydrocarbonic solvent in dry cleaning industry with  experiences of Taiwan as well as other countries; 3. To analysis the current international official regulation strategy on dry cleaning industry for the use of tetrachlorethylene and hydrocarbonic solvent, research and development of Taiwan's future ban recommendations for tetrachlorethylene in dry cleaning industry.
From the questionnaire results show that most of the Taiwan tetrachlorethylene industry use hydrocarbonic solvent, but with the tetrachlorethylene solvent may lead to human health risks, foreign use is also gradually showing a downward trend. Taiwan epidemiology study has no related articles. Therefore, this project is focused on the composition of dry cleaning agents and exposure scenario in Taiwan dry cleaning industry. In the epidemiological case of foreign workers due to dry-cleaning solvents, the workers in the workplace is exposed to mixed solvents, but only tetrachlorethylene has been identified as a solvent that may cause bladder cancer. There is limited evidence at this stage, so it is necessary to carry out more in-depth research to be conclusive.
The framework of this project is based on the relevant Taiwan regulation and proposes to gradually ban the use of tetrachlorethylene. It is also recommended that it is necessary to install carbon absorption equipment. The license should be withdrawn if such installation were not modified accordingly. So take a gradual approach to reduce the impact on the industry.