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拜拜網

 

計畫名稱:產品環境友善化及生產者延伸責任工作專案計畫
                Project of Design for Environment and Extended Producer Responsibility

計畫編號:EPA-102-H103-02-222

計畫執行單位:財團法人環境資源研究發展基金會

計畫主持人:邱文琳博士

計畫期程:102年2月19日起至102年12月31日止

 

摘要 

本計畫主要工作包括以下六項工作:

(一)訂定產品之禁限用評估準則:1.蒐集分析國內外法規及執行資訊。2.評析產品定義及國際間之禁限用產品類別。3.研提嚴重污染環境之虞的特性,包括不易清除處理、含長期不易腐化之成分、含有害物質之成分、大量耗費物質、大量耗費能源、回收後不易資源化或去化。4.研訂產品禁限用評估準則。包括:禁限用後之環境效益、自然資源耗用、產品回收情形、產品可替代性、產業衝擊、消費者衝擊等六項評估準則及一項通則(產品生命週期考量)。5.研訂產品禁限用評估程序,包括環境評估,技術評估,經濟與社會評估三個不同層面,及五個評估階段步驟。6.產品禁限用現況及產品篩選原則與篩選方案。7.產品禁限用之衝擊評估模式,如參數權重法、層級分析法、象限區間法等。8.研提禁限用措施,包括不得提供、禁止製造/輸入/販賣、消費者另付費、業者提供優惠等。

(二)研提產品環境友善化管理方案:1.依常見國外強制性及自願性規範,訂定電子電器環境化設計準則草案。2.就耗能性產品類別,彙整能源耗用、空氣污染、水污染、資源耗用及廢棄物產出等五大指標相關資訊進行評估並研擬環境友善度評估準則;綜合專家及消費者意見,建議未來訂定設計準則應以汽車為優先。3.彙整國內外資訊及專家意見,提出促進環境友善化設計9項優先執行措施。

(三) 檢討評估新增公告回收項目:1.彙整美國、歐盟、日本及新加坡廢電子電機產品回收資訊,供國內施政參考。2.配合環保署修正責任業者列管範圍及定義,完成召開2場研商、公聽會,及相關公告作業,前述公告將於103年3月1日正式生效。3.研提短中長期之新增公告回收方式可配合國內產品特性及處理需求,推動廢電子電機產品逐類公告回收,並針對現行未公告回收的65項產品作分類。4.彙整LED燈之市場概況(營業量)、產品組成及再利用比例、發光二極體(LED)晶片與螢光粉之材料,並分析產品中有害重金屬含量及瞭解現行回收處理技術。5.協助調查空氣芯、機油芯、汽(柴)油芯及操作油芯產品之產品功能、組成材料及現行回收處理管道,並提出管理措施與建議。6.彙整文獻資料與近期調查結果,訪談輸出業者瞭解至不同國家的運作情形。7.瞭解現行一般廢棄物於最終處置前產生量大且未妥善回收的產品,並經由新興產品類別及非電子電機產品研提新增公告評估原則,包含主要評估因子(產生量、回收再利用行性)及輔助評估因子(責任業者範圍、責任業者負荷能力、執行機關可行性)研提評估建議。

 (四)監督輔導包裝用發泡塑膠自主回收:1.彙整2011年亞洲EPS產業聯盟(AMEPS)回收成效、並蒐集分析日本、歐盟廢發泡塑膠回收方式,提出國內可參考改善的建議。2.計算處理廠回收處理成本,結果顯示東部保麗龍處理廠處理成本較西部更高。其原因有二:(1)處理量少、(2)再生料價格低。3.協助審查「清除處理業務執行報告書」及「會計報告書」,並提出改善建議。4. 完成15家次再生廠查核作業,並針對缺失加以複查、輔導,結果顯示再生廠處理成效良好,協會稽核認證工作亦有效執行。5.完成包裝用發泡塑膠年度回收再生處理量計算方式檢討,並完成協會自主回收再利用成效評估,102年1~9月實際回收量為1,483.8公噸,回收率達63.02%,達到合約要求。

(五)推動廢行動通訊產品業者自主回收:1. 蒐集具代表性國家如英國、日本及韓國等之行動通訊產品回收概況,並研析可供我國後續推動廢行動通訊產品回收考量之經驗。2.調查我國廢行動通訊產品營業量(約770萬台/年)、推估廢棄量(約180萬台/年)、回收量(約140萬台/年)、推估回收清除處理成本(177.元/公斤)。3.設計並印製新版回收宣導標誌3種樣式共計1萬3千份,並於6月底發送各業者張貼,向民眾宣導。4.完成250間手機回收門市抽樣訪查,占83%門市已落實回收工作。5. 舉辦「102年度第三期MOU業者交流會議」,促進業者回收經驗交流。6.完成研擬「MOU執行評估指標」,期能用以彰顯各MOU業者之回收績效、具體貢獻及所投入資源,並依照不同層面分為:管理端、消費端及成效端等三大端評估指標,以利檢討廢行動通訊產品回收成果進行相關工作。

(六)研提產品之推動再使用或逆向回收措施:1.蒐集各國廢棄物管理法規,得知再使用(reuse)多優於材質及能源再利用(recycling/recovery),只因管理不易,各國政府近年方逐漸嘗試推動。目前國內並無強制要求再使用之法源,本計畫僅嘗試研提產品再使用措施,主要參考英國PAS141自願性協議及國內推動多年「二手電腦回收轉贈作業專案工作計畫」,期能作為日後推動產品再使用之參考。2.蒐集國外逆向回收成效有美國、澳洲、日本中國大陸等地政府機關或民間企業團體實行逆向回收,仍以民間推動為主,即便中國政府介入,也僅限於鼓勵性措施。整理國內碳粉匣銷售市場現況及回收量統計,經訪問10家廠商及資料彙整,推估得國內原生碳粉匣、再生碳粉匣以及射出形成匣於101年度之市占比例約為72%:22%:6%,整體平均回收率約45%;國內墨水匣銷售市場現況及回收量統計,經訪問10家廠商及資料彙整,推估得國內原生碳粉匣、再生碳粉匣以及射出形成匣於101年度之市占比例約為70%:20%:10%,整體回收率約7%。但回收率仍有進步空間。依照環保署以提升碳粉匣回收率的原則,研提原生、再生碳粉匣及墨水匣業者自主回收合作備忘錄,可提供方便回收管道給予民眾知悉,並取得回收成效,以利掌握回收現況。

 

英文摘要(Abstract)

     The project includes six major tasks:

      1.To stipulate the evaluation standards for banned and restricted products: (1)To collect and analyze information and regulations related to banned and restricted products with potential environmental hazards. (2)To analyze the definition of products and international banned and restricted product categories. (3)To analyze the characteristics of the 'with potential environmental hazards' article in the waste disposal act. (4)To stipulate the evaluation standards for product ban and restriction, evaluation procedure, and phases. (5)To propose the product selection principles, plans, impact evaluation model, and possible ban and restriction measures.

      2.To propose environmentally friendly product management plan: (1)To draft environmentally friendly design principles for electronic and electric equipment by referring to mandatory and voluntary regulations of the EU, Germany, USA, Japan, and China. (2)To collect and analyze information regarding five indices in the energy intensive product category, including energy consumption, air pollution, water pollution, resource consumption, and waste generation, and to propose the criteria for environmental friendliness evaluation.  From the results of expert and phone interviews, it is suggested that the priority sequence for stipulating design principles is as follows: automobiles, electronic and electric equipment, and information products. (3)To integrate domestic and foreign information, and expert opinions, and to propose nine priority implementation measures for environmentally friendly design.

      3.To review the newly proclaimed recycling items: (1)To collect the WEEE recycling information from the USA, the EU, and Japan, including legal regulations, recycled items, implementation measures, and performance as reference for domestic business. (2)To revise EPA regulation and complete required administrative works, including forums and public hearings, and to add tablet computer, external hard disk, cold cathode lamp, fluorescent induction lamp, and other lamp containing mercury in the mandatory recycled items. (3)In the mid-term and long-term plan to include all WEEE products in the recycling system, the domestic products will be classified into three major categories and six minor categories based on their characteristics and  processing requirements, and proclaimed as mandatory recycled items in stages. (4)To be familiar with the market status, the sales volume, the product composition, the recycling percentage, and disposal techniques of the LED lamp, and to analyze the specific heavy metal content in products. (5)To collect domestic and foreign literature and to research the export process of the waste printed circuit board, including the WEEE import limitation and responses of the business in China, and other operation models in Asia. (6)To evaluate the priority recycled items in the future based on the analysis of collected but not properly recycled products (such as plastic products), and questionnaire interviews with the garbage cleaning team. (7)To propose the evaluation principles of adding new product categories and non-electronic and non-electric products in the proclaimed list, including major evaluation factors (product manufacturing volume, recyclability), and auxiliary evaluation factors (the scope of responsible business, the capacity of the responsible business, and the enforceability of the competent authority).

4.To supervise and assist the voluntary recycling of packaging foam plastic:(1)To collect information regarding the performance of AMEPS in 2011, and analyze the recycling methods of waste foam plastic  in Japan and the EU as reference for domestic recycling measures. (2)To calculate the recycling business disposal costs.  The results show 1~1.5 dollars net profit for disposal business in western Taiwan, but 21.68 dollars financial loss for disposal business in eastern Taiwan.  The main reasons for the difference lie in disposal amounts, transportation cost, and the price of secondary raw materials. (3)To complete the inspection of 15 recycling business, and re-inspection of substandard procedures. The results show satisfactory performance and effective certification by the association. (4)To review the method of calculating the annual amount of recycling packaging foam plastic, and to evaluate the performance of voluntary recycling by the association. The actual amount recycled from January to September in 2013 is 1,483.8 tons, with a 63.02% recycling percentage.

5.To promote voluntary waste communication product recycling system by the producers: (1)To collect the information regarding the recycling status of communication products in Britain, Japan, and Korea as reference for proposed measures in Taiwan. (2)To investigate and calculate the sales volume, the waste volume, the recycled volume, and the recycling and disposal costs of waste communication products. (3)To design and print new version of promotion stickers, and to give out to business for posting as public promotion. (4)To interview 250 cellular phone business sites and 83% sites has implemented cellular phone recycling. (5)To propose 'MOU voluntary recycling performance evaluation indices', covering different phases including management, consumption, and effectiveness. The indices can be used to evaluate business recycling performance, effectiveness, and input resources, and also used for reviewing communication product recycling performance.

6.To propose reuse promotion and reverse recycling of products: (1)To collect domestic and foreign reuse examples, and to propose measures for future product reuse promotion.(2)To estimate the domestic market proportion and recycling amount of primary and secondary toner/ink cartridge in Taiwan. It is proposed that the toner/ink cartridge recycling in implemented through collaboration memorandum in Taiwan.