民國98年8月8日,莫拉克颱風帶來的豪雨,造成台灣南部、中部、東部地區嚴重災情。南部山區及沿海地區因淹水嚴重,造成道路橋樑及水利設施受損、河川溢堤及災區土石流,死傷及失蹤人數不斷攀升,農業損失相當慘重。

環保署整合全國三十所大學院校水災逾百位學者專家,組成「88水災區重建環境輔導與建言團隊」,針對雲嘉投(A區)、台南縣市(B區)、高雄縣市(C區)、屏東縣(D區)及台東縣(E區)等五個區域,災區的空氣品質、臭味、水質之現況變化與影響進行資料收集與分析,並協助政府及災民進行環境復育規劃、災區重建,作為未來國土規劃之重要依據。

  而各項重點工作項目中,藉由召開顧問諮詢會議中,所凝聚出重點執行項目種類,包含各區針對災區環境污染物潛勢評估、災民關懷與輔導、建置地理資訊工作平台、災區重建及國土規劃芻議建言報告等項目,進行實地調查並配合問卷量化結果進行評估。由各地區災區現況環境調查分析結果得知,雲嘉投(A區)地區,僅於斗六測站PM2.5-10 粗粒子有明顯上升趨勢,推估其可能原因為災後粗粒子揚塵所引起;台南地區災民安置區室內一氧化碳及甲醛超出建議值,安定鄉灰渣掩埋場地下水監測井之水質初步發現有遭受到污染;大高雄給水區原水濁度飆高之外,其餘地表水採樣點均檢測出雙酚A (bisphenol A);屏東因原水濁度飆高而增加氯量,另林邊給水廠因水災期間淹水,其慢濾池濾床內含有淹水後留下之微細淤泥,導致慢濾池出水不穩定,其清水濁度常超出飲用水水質規定;東部地區亦無重大環境污染之問題。

  災民關懷與輔導部分,民眾頗接受以環境專業服務形象進入災區,配合儀器施測行動,可促使災民願意接受訪談,藉由訪查問卷調查結果,認為災後提供最大幫助者為宗教團體、志工與軍隊,甚少認為中央政府或地方政府提供重要幫助,且災民普遍表示希望回到原居地居住,對於已經放棄原居地者,也希望政府能興建永久屋,而非組合屋供其居住。

  另建置地理資訊工作平台部分,於中央研究院地理資訊專題研究中心負責建置,平台上的資料共有55層,可分為五大類分別為基本資料、環境品質監測、災情資料、災後復原資料以及環境影響評估等,藉由各區熱點圖層之建置,即可快速分析評估重建現況。

  現階段災區重建及國土規劃芻議,由台灣北中南東各區域之地理、地質、水利、土木、資訊、環工、環教、公衛、原住民族及人文社經學界共同協力執行。台灣位於南北半球及西太平洋地區,面對大環境全球氣候變遷之衝擊及暖化問題,未來自然災害之發生將更趨頻繁,故本計畫之成果除提供相關單位對此次災害之後續因應方向外,亦提供了日後面對類似災害之應變與組織模式,以便在最短時間內,完成組織動員與災害分析評估之工作。

 

英文摘要(Abstract):

In August, Taiwan experienced its worst floods in 50 years after Typhoon Morakot struck the most of the central, south, and east areas of Taiwan. As much as two meters (2,000 mm) of rainfall was brought by Morakot. Central, southern, and eastern Taiwan suffered serious flooding damage caused by Typhoon Morakot. The storm destroyed homes, farms, buildings, and roads, causing about NT$100 billion (US$3 billion) in damage. On Aug. 21, professors from local universities, Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA), local government agencies, and volunteers from non-governmental organization (NGO) met at National Kaohsiung University, and jointly initiated an environmental impact assessment, monitoring, and reconstruction project. Five disaster-area investigation teams were formed after the meeting. 

The major tasks for the five teams were to collect field data, construct geographical information system (GIS) for disaster areas, delineate environmental sensitive area, and develop environmental reconstruction plans. The objectives of this study included the following: (1) environmental monitoring and data collecting, (2) environmental sensitive area delineation, (3) construction GIS for disaster areas, (4) victims counseling, guidance, and assistance, and (5) environmental rebuilding plans development. Each of the five Disaster-area Investigation Teams was in charge of different investigation areas. Team A (Region A) was in charge of Nantou County, Chiayi County, and Yunlin County (Central Taiwan area); Team B (Region B) was in charge of Tainan County; Team C (Region C) was in charge of Kaohsiung County; Team D (Region D) was in charge of Pingtung County; and Team F (Region F) was in charge of Taitung County (Southeast Taiwan area). A total of 30 universities and 150 professors and researchers were involved in this project. 

Results from this study indicate that the increases in PM2.5-10 concentrations were observed in central Taiwan areas. The increased formaldehyde concentration in indoor air was observed in several temporary shelters in Tainan areas. Due to the increased suspended solid concentrations in raw water, higher chlorine concentration was observed in the treated water at of the water treatment plant in Pingtung County. Conclusions from this study include the following: (1) Integrated and multimedia watershed management strategies need to be developed for those most sensitive and intensively used watersheds. (2) Application of natural treatment systems (e.g., land treatment, constructed wetland, porous media infiltration) for domestic wastewater treatment in the temporary and permanent home areas. (3) Construction of the watershed GIS and real time water quality monitoring system to effectively monitor and manage the watershed. 

Future work includes the following: (1) Application of developed GIS for damage area and impact status evaluation. (2) Development of the EIA guidelines for the disaster areas and environmental sensitive areas. (3) Determination of the indicators for the environmental sensitive areas. (4) Analysis of the endocrine disrupting chemicals and emerging contaminants in water samples. (5) Follow-up multimedia (air, surface water, drinking water, soil, groundwater, sediment, sludge) investigation at the environmental sensitive areas and potential environmental pollution areas. (6) Development of green and sustainable permanent home areas.