財團法人環境資源研究發展基金會 Institute of Environment and Resources - 我國環保政策演進分析與趨勢規劃

摘要:

回顧我國環保政策之演進,對照國際環保政策演進及趨勢發展,可以發現我國目前正走到環境保護政策轉變進化之分水嶺上。蓋世界各國環境保護政策的需求與環保機關的設立,皆導因於人類賴以生活的環境發生問題,衝擊到日常優質、舒適的生活,甚至導致死亡。故紛紛制定公害污染防治之法令與機關以救濟因應,進而設立自然環境保育之法律及機關以為預防。

20年前,也就是民國76年,行政院環保署將原本分散於各機關處室的公害污染防治事務相連結統合,成為專責中央機構,自此,我國污染整治因有此一專責機關而更上軌道。與此同時,永續發展逐漸成為國際新興理念;強調唯有經濟、社會兩者在以環境優先或於環境限制內均衡發展,才是人類長久可持續發展的途徑。這也昭示了傳統以管末管制為主的環保政策仍有缺陷,而持續演進的最終理想則是,唯有社會、經濟的發展能統合在環境意識與思維下,從源頭才能徹底預防環境問題的產生。

因此,本計畫所研擬之我國環保政策演進趨勢規劃以永續發展為長程目標,希望達成社會、經濟與環境的高度整合;中程目標希望達成自然保育與污染防治的整合,統合環境事務;而短程目標則希望強化污染防治效能。

上述短、中、長程目標我們希望能實現如下永續發展分項願景:優質生活環境、永續自然資源、綠色生產與消費與公民參與社會。

本報告最後提出五項策略建議:1)全面污染防治、2)推動循環型社會、3)加強溫室氣體減量、4)推動完善的政策檢視機制、5)組織改制與轉型,期望最後能達成短中長程目標及永續發展的願景。

我國經濟快速起飛之後,人民的環境意識多所提升,環境影響評估法及永續發展委員會的成立顯示環境事務及其與經濟、社會的整合已慢慢進行,而行政院組織法的通過及成立環境資源部的討論更展現輿論及社會都已準備並期待上述整合。我們認為環保署在加強自身核心業務污染防治的同時,也應藉由循環型社會及溫室氣體減量等議題增加與其他部會合作的機會,並強化環境影響評估等政策檢視機制,並積極推動環境事務整合等組織改造。

 

Abstract

Review the secession and evolution of Taiwan’s national environmental policies and put it in context with international and historical trends, we understand that now Taiwan is at a critical point of environmental policy transformation. 

Through out the world, every country’s environmental policy and environmental organizations are established in the face of environmental accidents or disasters. Then the environmental organizations were set to prevent and control pollutions; and natural conservation bureau to conserve and protect natural diversity and resources.

Taiwan is one of the cases. Twenty years ago the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) of Executive Yuan was established which integrated pollution control operations that had been scattered around different bureaus. From then on, the environment improves for we have a central unit of environmental protection. 

However the job has never been finished. While sustainable development (SD) been mainstreamed the same year EPA was set, the idea of SD which emphasize integration of environment, society and economy was only started in Taiwan. And we are still on the way to advance from end-of- pipe thinking to pollution prevention and source-reduction.

Therefore, in this report we propose that the future trends of Taiwan’s environmental policy should aims for three goals: the short term goal is to strengthen pollution control through prevention and source-reduction while integrate the now dispersed natural conservation operations; the mid term goal is to integrate environmental affairs as a whole, combine pollution control and natural protection into one arm; the third and final goal is to integrate environmental thinking into social and economic affairs, which in our view the way to sustainable development.

To supplement these three goals we also produce four visions which visualize what we see as a sustainable future: high quality of living environment; sustainable natural resources; environmental friendly production and consumption; and civil participatory society.

Five priority strategies which we think would help reach these goals are also proposed: 1) strengthen pollution control; 2) promote sound material cycle society; 3) encourage green house gas reduction; 4) improve policy environmental assess and review mechanism; 5) organization restructure or reorganize suggestions.

Through these five strategies, we think the EAP could on the one hand strengthen their core function of pollution control and environmental assessment, and on the other hand promote integration of environmental business as a whole through proposing organization restructure; while promoting SD through cooperation with economic and social departments on issue of climate change and cycle society.

 

前 言

1987年,瑞典首相布蘭登夫人在聯合國提出報告,名為「我們共同的未來(Our Common Future)」,揭示全球邁向永續發展的路徑;同年,我國原屬衛生署下的環境保護局提升位階,正式成立了「行政院環境保護署」。2007年,國內國外紛紛以各種節目活動紀念布蘭登報告滿20周年;我國環保署也以這個計畫,回顧其成立20年來各階段環保政策,期望藉由更宏觀的視野,比較國內外環境政策趨勢,擬定我國未來環境政策的方向和願景。

 

執行方法

本計畫先分析我國過去 20年來重大環保政策演進過程及成效,及同時期歐、美、日等環保先進國家重大環保政策趨勢,以此為基礎研擬我國未來環境保護政策趨勢規劃及短中長程目標、願景,重點策略建議等。

 

結 果

綜合我國過去環保政策的演進及國際趨勢,本計畫歸納出四項重點議題,認為乃我國未來環境保護政策趨勢規劃應該重視考慮。此四項議題為:

一、管末管理的局限

二、環境經濟對立的迷思

三、資訊公開與政府透明度

四、菁英決策與民眾參與

 

結 論

本計畫研擬我國環保政策演進趨勢規劃短中長程目標為:

一、長程目標:永續發展,希望達成社會、經濟與環境的整合

二、中程目標:統合環境事務,希望達成自然保育與污染防治的整合

三、短程目標:強化污染防治效能。

藉由這短、中、長程目標我們希望能趨近永續發展的分項願景:

一、優質生活環境

二、永續自然資源

三、綠色生產與消費

四、公民參與社會。

 

建 議

研擬五項策略建議如下,期望最後能達成短中長程目標及永續發展的願景。

一、 全面污染防治

二、 推動循環型社會

三、 推動溫室氣體減量

四、 推動完善的政策檢視機制

五、 組織改制與轉型