計畫名稱:廢棄物再利用模式與資源化管理制度建置計畫

計畫編號:EPA-91-H102-02-221

計畫執行單位:財團法人環境資源研究發展基金會

計畫主持人:鄭耀文

計畫期程:九十一年十一月五日起至九十二年九月三十日止

 

摘  要

本計畫蒐集彙整先進國家廢棄物資源化實施情形,並檢討國內相關法規及執行現況,以期為國內廢棄物之再利用及資源化管理規劃出一套符合世界潮流、並順應國情的完善制度。在國外資料蒐集方面,本計畫分別針對名詞定義、源頭管理、運作管理、輔導獎勵措施、技術研發與資訊交換等五部分,提出短、中、長程建議共十項,包括:以自願性協定的方式推動資源回收再利用工作、統一管制體系、推動能源回收、加強推動資源化產品規格化、訂定回收再利用目標等。

在國內法規檢討部分,本計畫首先針對現行廢清法之再利用管理制度提出六項缺失及改善建議,並依廢清法第三十九條之刪修與否,研擬廢清法與資再法之競合解決方案,同時彙整資再法本身在執行上可能遇到的問題,提出未來修法建議。另外,本計畫並根據資再法第十二條及第二十二條規劃再生資源及再生產品通路推廣之分階段實施措施,並建議資再法第十一條、第十三條、第十四條、第十六條、以及第十八條等採取分批公告方式實施。

在資源化技術及推廣方面,本計畫考量廢棄物特性、經濟性及技術成熟度等因子訂定評估原則及給分標準進行較具潛力公告為再利用廢棄物與公告為再生資源之評估,其評估結果以「自來水污泥」、「氟化鈣污泥」為較具潛力依廢清法公告為再利用之廢棄物,而「廢鐵」、「廢紙」為較具潛力依資再法公告為再生資源項目之資源化廢棄物。本計畫針對其中「自來水污泥」、「氟化鈣污泥」及「廢鐵」等項目蒐集國內外相關資源化技術資料,並規劃其再利用管理及推廣方式。另外,並針對廢食用油、廚餘、焚化底渣、以及國內大型焚化爐無法焚化之一般事業廢棄物(如廢塑膠、廢橡膠、廢樹脂、廢纖維等)加以探討。在管理制度方面,本計畫首先針對廢清法與資再法之公告模式加以彙整比較,並進而提出改善建議。至於未公告項目之申請審查模式,則以目前經濟部之運作模式作為環保署及其他目的事業主管機關之參考。

本計畫並依據廢棄物再利用管理方式與申報管制措施之關聯性,提出相關改善建議包括:事業清理計畫書應予明確再利用內容、公告再利用之再利用機構應辦理登記報備、建立廢棄物再利用備查程序及申報規定等。在稽查管制方面,本計畫除彙整分析相關疑義案例外,並實際訪談環保署環境督察總隊北區環境督察大隊,以研擬「判定廢棄物再利用稽查作業之標準作業程序」,包括:判定廢棄物再利用、稽查前準備、現場稽查作業、以及稽查後管制作業等。

 

Waste should be treated as recyclable and reusable resources in a sustainable society. Waste Disposal Act in Taiwan was first promulgated in 1974. It has been amended seven times since then and the latest amendment was promulgated on October 24, 2001. The recycling, clearing away, and disposal of the general wastes, generated by household or other non-industries, are implemented at local government level. Management of industrial wastes is handled separately from stipulation of the designated enterprise to collection, transportation, storage, clearance, and disposal of the wastes. For moving towards a recycling-based society, the Resource Recycling and Reuse Act has been promulgated by the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) in 2003. The purpose of the Act is to lessen environmental burden and to build a society for sustainable resource utilization. Empowered by the Act, specific breakdown concerning the types of recyclable and reusable waste will be promulgated progressively with relevant penal provisions. In general, the EPA, as the Responsible Agency at central government level, is in charge of the permit approval, facility inspection and examination, measures and rule stipulation for the two laws. This project firstly reviews the waste recycling systems over the advanced countries and accordingly gives suggestions for the following studies. The compatibility between the Waste Disposal Act and the Resource Recycling and Reuse Act are then studied and three scenarios are consequently concluded for the enforcement model of the two laws. This project also examines the promulgating mechanism, permit application process, and declaration procedure of the two laws. A calculation method is also provided for evaluating the recycle value of the wastes.