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計畫名稱:應回收廢棄物回收管制措施之探討計畫

計畫編號:EPA-90-H101-02-217-A195

委託機構:行政院環境保護署

研究人員:林群超

計畫顧問:顧洋

計畫期程:民國90年06月27日起民國91年07月04日止

關鍵字:應回收廢棄物、回收業、處理業、登記、申報、設施標準、稽核認證

 

摘要

「廢棄物清理法」歷經多次修正,最近一次乃於民國九十年十月二十四日公布實施,原十條之一所規定有關資源回收部分,修訂新名詞為「應回收廢棄物」,並擴充為第十六條至第二十三條之條文內容,並授權另訂辦法與設施標準。本計畫之重點乃研擬應回收廢棄物之相關四項辦法與一項設施標準。五項子法名稱為:

一、 應回收廢棄物責任業者管理辦法

二、 應回收廢棄物回收貯存清除處理方法及設施標準

三、 應回收廢棄物稽核認證作業辦法

四、 應回收廢棄物回收處理業管理辦法

五、 應回收廢棄物回收清除處理補貼申請審核管理辦法

過去相關要點或規範為因應「行政程序法」有關法律必須授權訂定之因素,乃由本計畫將其內容整理至此五項子法中,使有母法之授權依據。五項子法之執行與研擬主要依據各執行單位之需求並經充分協商後完成,其間亦經律師審查修正文字及舉辦公聽會,今年(民國91年)將會陸續公告實施。

應回收廢棄物五項子法所規範者為前端業者繳費及末端回收處理業執行實際工作並由基管會發放補貼費,與現行實施模式大致相同且實質改變不大。最大改變乃一定規模之回收處理業無論是否向基管會申請補貼費,皆應向地方主管機關辦理登記,違者受罰。責任業者仍維持過去前端繳費之方式代替其回收清除處理之責任,仍屬替代責任而非實體責任,末端清除處理由基管會負責,為公辦公營之型態。一定規模之回收處理業登記後並經審核其設施標準,核可後為「受補貼機構」,始得接受稽核認證作業,經認證回收處理數量後則可申請補貼費。

本計畫亦提出應回收廢棄物回收管制之建議,尤以應順應世界潮流落實製造者延伸責任(Extended Producer Responsibility)為佳,如此才可降低廢棄物處理之社會成本並促進業者採行綠色設計及清潔生產等。我國廢棄物清理法雖有製造者責任之規定,但乃以繳交費用以替代實質回收清除處理之責任,實為扭曲製造者責任之原意,本計畫建議應修正廢棄物清理法或以自願性協定之協調模式落實此一進步之綠色政策。

 

Abstract

The “Waste Disposal Law” has been modified many times recently. The newest version was revised on 2001/10/24. The former version’s Article 10-1 has been extended to the Article 16 through Article 23, which are related to the “Compulsory Universal Wastes”. These Articles mainly authorize 5 statutes for the “Compulsory Universal Wastes”. The names of the 5 statutes are:

 

1. The Management Statute of Extended Producer Responsibility for the Compulsory Universal Wastes 

2. The Methods and Equipment Standards of Collection, Storage, Cleaning and Treatment for the Compulsory Universal Wastes

3. The Operation Statute of Audit and Certification for the Compulsory Universal Wastes

4. The Management Statute of Collection and Treatment Business for the Compulsory Universal Wastes

5. The Subsidy Application and Verification Management Statute for the Compulsory Universal Wastes

 

The reasons for setting new statutes are to get several unauthorized regulations together, and to give the new authorities by the new version of the “Waste Disposal Law”. The processes for handling and writing the content of these statutes included several discussions and meetings with the officials of the waste disposal department and about 7 public inquiry meetings. Also, we consulted the attorney for better wording.  

 

Through the new legislation works, the system and management structure for the Compulsory Universal Wastes is almost same as what is doing right now. It means, at the pre-consumer end, the producers should pay the disposal fee to the Recycling Foundation that could offset their responsibility of collection, cleaning and treatment of compulsory universal wastes. At the post-consumer end, the Recycling Foundation pay money to the collection and treatment business for their works about the collection, cleaning and treatment of compulsory universal wastes. However, there still a difference comparing with the past. The collection and treatment business should register to the local government by the new regulations of the “Waste Disposal Law”. The collection and treatment business also should pass the examinations about their equipment before applying the process of the audit, certification and finally get the subsidy from the Recycling Foundation.

 

Finally, this project suggested that the management of the universal wastes in Taiwan should follow the trend of the world that to promote the green policy of the “Extended Producer Responsibility: EPR”. It is supposed to be the better strategy to reduce the social cost for the waste disposal and treatment, and also induce the producers to adopt the green designs and the clean production procedures. It needs further revisions about the “Waste Disposal Law” or to make the “Voluntary Agreement” between government and producers for implementing the EPR. It is such a wonderful goal that is highly expected by many people, but there still are a lot of barriers to be resolved in Taiwan.

 

前言

為因應新修正廢棄物清理法(90年10月24日公布)對原廢清法十條之一有關應回收廢棄物之部分修改,廢清法之修正及基於九十年一月一日實施之行政程序法中主要規定:「無法律之授權而剝奪或限制人民之自由、權利者無效」;因此,有關目前執行一般廢棄物回收清除處理業務之相關辦法、設施標準及要點等需根據新版母法條文之授權重新審視與檢討,現行相關辦法及要點等應重新調整使有授權依據。本計畫之主要內容(原十條之一內容)乃研擬五項有關應回收廢棄物之相關辦法及設施標準,涉及影響範圍甚大,包括責任業者之登記申報、回收貯存清除處理之設施標準、稽核認證、資源回收機構等之登記申報及補貼制度等五大項目。就此母法架構所展開之各項子法條文之訂定,應注重其內容涵蓋面、實際可行性與母法之授權,避免產生競合、衝突或逾越母法之現象,本計畫之工作重點即在新版廢棄物清理法之架構下,研擬訂定五項子法,使應回收廢棄物之管制顯現其制度規模與組織完備性。

 

工作方法

本計畫之執行首先於計畫步驟階段規劃整體流程,蒐集相關法規資料,依據「行政機關法制作業應注意事項」之規定列為研擬各項辦法或設施標準應遵循之基本原則與要點,再提出研擬管制辦法及管制措施之初步構想與內容,其次,召開與承辦業務單位之協商會及以責任業者、稽核團體及回收清除處理業者之公聽會,條文研議結果再經律師事務所審查確認。

 

研究結果

完成應回收廢棄物相關五項子法如下:

一、 應回收廢棄物責任業者管理辦法

二、 應回收廢棄物回收貯存清除處理方法及設施標準

三、 應回收廢棄物稽核認證作業辦法

四、 應回收廢棄物回收處理業管理辦法

五、 應回收廢棄物回收清除處理補貼申請審核管理辦法

並建議廢棄物管理之觀念與相關管制架構,製造者延伸責任(Extended Producer Responsibility: EPR)應積極落實始降低廢棄物處理之社會成本並誘導業者採取綠色設計與清潔生產。另建議廢棄物管理應建立不同等級之許可(Permit)制度,其等級如下:

一、第一級許可:焚化、熱裂解、熔融等熱處理及掩埋之處理

二、第二級許可:有害廢棄物之回收、貯存、清除、處理及再利用

三、第三級許可:一般廢棄物、一般事業廢棄物之處理及再利用

四、第四級許可:一般廢棄物、一般事業廢棄物之回收、貯存及清除

五、各等級可再以清理數量(規模)之多寡區分次等級。